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Are New Jersey largest cities like Newark-spun3
PostPosted: Sun 13:12, 01 Sep 2013

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Are New Jersey largest cities like Newark,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych]
Catastrophes like that of the recently upgraded 9.0 "mega-thrust" earthquake that struck just offshore of Japan nearly three days ago,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], leave more questions than answers about the vulnerability of large cities anchored along the earth seismic zones. Geologist and Seismologists are scrambling to better understand how earthquakes are triggered and how to ultimately provide ample warning time. Large cities such as Los Angeles,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], Seattle,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], Tokyo,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], and surprisingly St. Louis are housed over ticking time bombs hidden well beneath the earth's crust or "lithosphere". The former three cities are situated near regions where the earth's tectonic plates either:
1. grind past one another "strike-slip faults"
The deadly quake and resulting tsunami that struck Japan occurred at the most dangerous of the three faults, the subduction zone. New research being uncovered by scientists is helping to understand the dangers that await cities like St. Louis,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], Boston, and even Newark,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych],NJ. But how can earthquakes occur in these regions where there are no obvious plate boundaries or fault lines nearby?
The answer lies beneath places like the Mississippi River Valley,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], the site of the New Madrid Earthquake of 1812. This region is commonly known as the "New Madrid Seismic Zone". Whether or not your aware,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], these earthquakes, known as intraplate quakes,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], occur quite often across the eastern portion of the United States. Most of these quakes are so small, we don't ever know they ever happened,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], but some are quite potent and even dangerous. Such events like the June 2010 Ontario-Quebec magnitude 5.0 earthquake that was felt in Boston and the November 2010 3.9 magnitude quake just off the Jersey coast are unpleasant reminders that intraplate quakes can occur. Scientists have discovered faults created by rifts or splits in the igneous rock beneath the earth dating back to when the super continent Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic Era began to break apart. These rifts created faults,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], and like the faults that the aforementioned cities lie near,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], with the right amount of tension and stress,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], they break.
New Jersey and much of the Northeast surprisingly sit on fault systems that are hidden deep below the ground. The potential damage of an intraplate earthquake in the area of St. Louis or even the New York metropolitan area is daunting. In a report filed in 2008 by the US Emergency Management Agency,[link widoczny dla zalogowanych], they warned an earthquake in the "New Madrid Seismic Zone" would result in the highest economic losses due to a natural disaster in the US.
Scientists don't know why rift systems fail causing intraplate quakes, nonetheless when the world's most active seismic zones are due to strike, but new technology is helping to revolutionize earthquake prediction. Research is being conducted using high tech computer models and global positioning satellites to help calculate the probability of a major disaster and create better warning systems dedicated to saving lives. One such project listens into the what are known as "P" and "S" waves that emanate from a quakes epicenter. Although these waves move considerably fast, critical seconds can provide enough time to take shelter.

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