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The transition from Koryo to Choson dynasties was not a drastic and radical change in the historic sense. It was a rather logical and reasonable transformation not of the ruling power in Korea but societal, economic and cultural change that was caused by centuries of Koryo rule. There were numerous problems that accompanied the ending of the Koryo period and thus stimulated internal changes in the country which in turn took place in the form of a new emerging power of Choson dynasty.
A major issue that Koryo dynasty was [url=http://www.ilyav.com/uggpascher.php]ugg pas cher[/url] facing in its later years was the presence of Mongols who provoked a rise and launched a massive invasion on the Korean lands in 1231. Although the native army was trying to resist invaders fiercely they could not oppose the highly organized mounted troops from the north as they were sweeping most of the Eurasian continent during that period. Not only this was a huge negative impact in economical way but also Khubilai Khan who was Mongolian emperor forced Koryo [url=http://www.thehygienerevolution.com/barbour.php]barbour paris[/url] people into the expeditions against Japan in 1274 and 1281. This situation consequently was imprinted on the Korean society as thousands of their men and ships were killed and drowned leading Mongols to the total domination over Korean territory. Only in the fourteenth century Koryo was able to regain its independence. This was possible because the Mongol Empire was experiencing internal problems in fighting for the throne and it began to disintegrate thus losing power on a foreign territory. Such opportunity however was taken by Ming Dynasty that pushed Mongols back to their borders although another enemy was attacking Korea; Chinese rebel armies called Red Banner Bandits destroyed and burned the capital leaving the country in ruins.
Another problem of internal kind was an issue of land possession. By that time the land-grant system was no efficient anymore and the country was left with former Mongol-favored officials and military men who owned vast majority of land. Obviously the land was worked by those holding lease on it or simply renting and were paying owners thus omitting government as the initial possessor of the land. When King Kongmin attempted to enforce a land reform he met a strong opposition that was governed by those holding land and officials who were supposed to implement the reform. Such challenge of interests was not adding to the stability of the ruling dynasty and country was beginning to collapse from the inside as well [url=http://www.mxitcms.com/abercrombie/]abercrombie[/url] as from external causes.
A third major problem that served as catalyst for the changing of power and regime in Korea was a rising hostility between two major religions. Buddhism and Confucianism doctrines were normally coexisting during most of the Koryo period with little conflict. However just before the Mongols invaded Korean territory Neo-Confucian creed was permeated into the minds of scholars. There were a few key differences between the two beliefs. For instance new Confucian followers did not support the idea that a monk should denounce his family ties [url=http://www.rtnagel.com/louboutin.php]louboutin pas cher[/url] and other social responsibilities. The basis of their philosophy was grounded on strong family and social relationships, thus monks were considered a functional part of the society not an entity on its own. Moreover Buddhist temples were excessively rich and luxurious as viewed by the new religious believers. Wealth and power that their monasteries possessed also was a huge problem between the two parties. Big regions of farmland were under Buddhist regulation and thus yielded them economical advantage as well as political power. Consequently Buddhists not only controlled religious situation in the kingdom but influenced political and economic decisions based on their direct interests. Another negative impact caused by Buddhism were festivals that required enormous expense incurred by the state that was already poor because of constant invasions and internal political fights.
Along with the Chinese Bandits and consequences of the [url=http://jesonclub.com/home.php?mod=space&uid=92176][/url] Mongol century-long domination on Korean lands, Japanese pirates were another external threat to the country. By the end of Koryo rule they were no longer hit-and-run robbers, they conducted organized military attacks deep into the country raising panic and mistrust of native residents. Taking into consideration all of the listed problems that Korea was submerged in one can see that such situation could not possibly continue. Drastic changes that happened afterward were forming in the process of developing stagnation within the country and thus these changes were inevitable outcome resulting in the end of Koryo ruling.
It was at that moment that General Yi Song-gye kept away the Japanese invaders in a series of successful battles. This distinguished him as a leader who could take control and guide people to a new life that many were looking for at that period. The foremost [url=http://www.achbanker.com/homes.php]hollister france[/url] goal of the General was to improve lives of ordinary people and to reform land-handling system. Thus he and his group of supporters began implementing new laws in order to better coordinate land distribution. Under the terms of status land system, land was given for a lifetime [url=http://www.mquin.com/giuseppezanotti.php‎]giuseppe zanotti soldes[/url] based on the social rank of the receiver. They were granted the right to collect rents whereas the peasants were only allowed to cultivate. Usually rent was paid as rent-tax to the state and amounted to half the crop as well. At the same time the peasant who worked on the land was guaranteed land possession [url=http://www.mxitcms.com/abercrombie/]abercrombie milano[/url] in terms [url=http://www.rtnagel.com/louboutin.php]louboutin[/url] on having cultivating rights that was not subject to confiscation. The General also made sure that office-holding aristocrats were closely controlled by the state so that the land status would be granted [url=http://www.ilyav.com/uggpascher.php]boots ugg pas cher[/url] only in areas around the capital. In such a way the government could maintain strict supervision and inspection of people who were given land.
By decisively carrying out land reorganization General Yi and his supporters took hold of economic power. King Kongyang who was previously placed on the throne was forced to resign his supremacy and Yi Song-gye was put on the throne instead, thus ending the rule of Wang house. Choson was a new name that Yi has given to the dynasty and he was proclaimed T'aejo. The creation of the institutions in which Confucian doctrine would be learnt was given a top priority as new dynasty was trying to establish a Confucian state. Municipal schools and even one college were opened in Hanyang and local schools were founded in magistracies. The government recruited Confucian-oriented scholars from these schools in order to guarantee a stable support for their policies.
Another social change took place in Korea with the establishment of a new dynasty. The land reform had a direct influence on the practice of Buddhism in the country. This happened because temples that have lost their lands and also were stripped off economic power as land could not bring them profit anymore. Transformation of the land [url=http://www.mxitcms.com/tiffany/]tiffany[/url] system impacted the political power of Buddhism as well and strengthened opposition as many considered Buddhist monks corrupted by the money and power they had during Koryo period. Thus a new order began an extensive attack on Buddhism and its institutions causing continuing effects on the style of life and overall culture [url=http://www.rtnagel.com/airjordan.php]nike air jordan pas cher[/url] of the country. Although many temples were destroyed, some of the outstanding pieces [url=http://www.ilyav.com/isabelmarant.php]isabel marant sneakers[/url] of architecture were allowed to stay undamaged. It became possible because a few Choson monarchs were Buddhists however their religion had little influence on the religious trends in Korea under the rule of Choson dynasty. It is important to note that none of the organized religions substituted it in full, as many people turned to such "religions" as shamanism, fortunetelling and superstitions. The country became a secular state in some sense.
All of the changes that took place with the transition from Koryo dynasty to the Choson, ultimately modified societal order and political life in Korea. It also impacted religious and cultural life of the state together with economic alteration. Obviously those two dynasties were very different in ways of implementing power and treating their own people; Choson dynasty was much more loyal and people-oriented governing authority. The historical facts that preceded establishment of Choson dynasty prove that external problems and internal [url=http://ww.rapidbbs.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=1233730][/url] tribulations in the country could only result in a new order which was brought by [url=http://www.mfjgyp.com/news/html/?671905.html]hollister sale Business Career Education Innovation Of SAP Programs[/url] the General Yi. Therefore this very switch of the power that altered many other changes was a necessary and unavoidable historical event that would happen no matter what.

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